Minari 180 & 200 specifications
Before putting any paramotor in service, new or used, CHECK THE TORQUE of the head nuts!
Clutch, bearings, manual start – inner bearing 17x35x10 SKF 6003 2RSH C3; outer bearing 15x32x9 SKF 16002-2Z (these bearings are better than OEM)
Cylinder gasket squish – 1.3mm -1.5mm (0.051"-0.59")
Cylinder head maximum temperature – see "Engine cylinder head maximum temperature" below
Engine compression – 90 psi at sea level; 4,000' MSL 80 psi. These values are approximate. Pressures are low because of the decompression port.
Engine cylinder head maximum temperature – 200ºC - 220ºC (390ºF - 428ºF) The engine will be destroyed if it is run at temperatures higher than this for more than a few minutes! Note: when the cylinder wall temperature exceeds 180ºC, the lubricating properties of the oil quickly deteriorate. Minari allows 220ºC-260ºC but I do not recommend operating at these temperatures.
Engine, main bearings
- pulley side: KOYO 83A915-SH2-9TC4 25x55x15 (this is a typical motorcycle engine bearing, high quality)
- flywheel side: ORS 6304 C3 20x52x15 or, better, KOYO 6304 C3 (a medium duty bearing)
Engine, main seals, dual lip – pulley side NAK TF 25x47x7; flywheel side NAK TF 20x47x7 – SEALS MUST BE IDENTICAL TO THE NAK TF!!
Engine, pulley – Use Top 80 clutch puller w 6mm bolts and 8mm flange nuts under the bolt heads to remove. Heat not necessary.
Engine, parts diagram (non-clutched engine)
Engine, piston-cylinder clearance – 0.04mm - 0.10mm (.002" - .004") Example of how to measure piston-cylinder clearance
Engine, ring gap – 0.45mm - 0.55mm (.018" - .022")
Engine RPM, maximum – 8,000-8,300
Engine temperature – see "Engine cylinder head maximum temperature" above
Exhaust nuts – these nuts are prone to loosening. Use RED threadlock on them.
Head temperature maximum – see "Engine cylinder head maximum temperature" above
Ignition, coil – IDM #150 (same as Top 80), coil must be installed with wiring facing out
Ignition coil primary resistance – 5 Ohms or less (but not zero)
Ignition coil secondary resistance – 8.2K Ohms ±10% (measure with a needle stuck into the secondary wire right where it comes out of the coil)
Ignition coil resistance + OEM secondary wire resistance – 17.5K Ohms ±10%. With our secondary kit installed, the value will be 8.8K Ohms ±10%. Note: Minari, like Miniplane as of 2018, may soon use the better ignition coil supplied by IDM. The new secondary wire resistance is <15 Ohms which is the same as the secondary wire we supply in our replacement kits.
Ignition coil to flywheel gap – 0.38mm (0.015")
Ignition timing – clutched engines 15-16º BTDC; non-clutched engines 18-19º BTDC.
Parts diagram – see "Engine, Parts diagram" above
Piston ring gap – see "Engine, ring gap" above
Propeller bolts – qty (6) 55mm x M8 70mm x M8 90mm x M8 depending on the propeller construction.
RPM maximum – see "Engine RPM, maximum" above
Spark plug – NGK BR8ES (cold weather); BR9ES (hot weather) This spark plug is a resistor type in order to help suppress ignition noise. The B8ES or B9ES can also be used without any problems but you may notice more radio interference.
Spark plug gap – 0.7mm-0.9mm (0.027" - 0.035") Always set the gap to the minimum. The greater value is the maximum value, not the range. You cannot gap the plug correctly without a wire-type gauge!
Speed system pulley – Harken H404 (superior to any of the OEM brands, especially Viadana)
Starter cord pulleys – Harken 082 (superior to the OEM Viadana)
Temperature maximum – see "Engine cylinder head maximum temperature" above
Threadlock – read this important page on threadlock and how to use it and when NOT to use it.
Timing – see "Ignition timing" above
Weight, dry – 24 kg (53 lb) manual
start, no fuel, includes the complete Miniplane frame. Add 1.1 kg (2.4 lb.) for electric start
NOTE: The exhaust nuts (#18) are prone to loosening. Use RED threadlock on them and safety wire.
Torque values – This handy page was created by Frank Hoffmann and was gathered from experience and the values given on page EN17 of the Minari User Guide. The Minari guide is not very useful because it has too many values missing and some errors e.g. "carter screws" should be "starter screws". Go to the Top 80 specification page to read the torque section if you cannot find the value you need in Frank's page or the Minari User Guide. The Top 80 page has a discussion on torque and why different value must be used sometimes.
The Italian paramotor manufacturers continue to use button-head screws on their engines, regardless whether they are needed or not. Button-head screws have soft heads which make them very easy to strip with a hex bit when attempting to remove them. Replace them with hex-head or socket-head screws, as necessary.
If you do not see the torque for a particular screw, bolt, or nut in Frank's table, use the general values below:
- M4 2 Nm (use caution with these small fasteners)
- M5 4 Nm
- M6 10 Nm
- M7 15 Nm
- M8 20 Nm
A. OVERALL CONDITION If the ignition and fuel systems are in order, engine performance will be directly related to engine compression. If the compression is around 150 psi (at sea level), the engine top end is in good order. Use of the best fuel (AVGAS or premium ethanol-free MOGAS) and approved oil) will give your engine the longest life before a major overhaul is necessary. Use of gasoline with ethanol will increase engine maintenance and cause rapid deterioration of fuel system parts.
B. MONITOR YOUR ENGINE Maintenance schedules depend somewhat on how the engine is used. Top end failure occurs without warning which is why the bearing and wrist pin should be replaced at the manufacturer's suggested interval. Once the wrist pin starts to wear out, failure will occur very quickly. C. SUDDEN FAILURE Abused engines and those that experience fuel starvation can experience failure (cylinder and piston seizure) very quickly – in just minutes. Engines that run lean (hot) may burn up the lower connecting rod bearing and that means a complete overhaul.
D. IGNITION FAILURE The weakest link is the ignition system which must be checked the moment a pilot senses a degradation in performance. Manufacturers have improved the quality of some of the components but they are still, overall, delicate. D. REED VALVE It should be tested and, if necessary, rebuilt if you find performance down a bit after a carb rebuild, a spark plug change, and find the ignition system all in order. That is, the big maintenance items are the usual but if there are still issues, then we look at compression and things like the reed valve. Technicians at the factory sometimes do not properly torque down fasteners on new engines and why pilots must check these things themselves. E. COMPRESSION TEST Do a compression test on the engine every 50 hours or so and record and compare the values to be sure the cylinder and piston ring are in good shape. If it's 150 psi plus/minus 10% (at sea level) then it's a waste to replace the piston and cylinder. However, the wrist pin, bearing, and circlips *must* still be replaced at the specified intervals!
E. WHAT FAILS FIRST The ignition, carburetor (the worst), and the wrist pin and bearing, in that order, are usually the first things which fail. They must be regularly checked. Compression tests of engines with decompression ports can be done but the pressures observed will be substantially less than engines without decompression ports. Engines with flash starters cannot have their compression measured easily except by removing the starter completely and turning the crankshaft with a powerful electric drill.
F. TYPE OF USE This maintenance schedule here is for average use. If you run at full power most of the time, fly near the ocean, or launch from sandy areas, you may have to check and replace things more often.
Use a Sharpie to write reminders on the top of the redrive (or other semi-flat area). Any other method will not be as effective. They are easily removed/changed with mineral spirits. This way, you won't forget. You have an hour meter/tachometer installed right?
ALWAYS check the torque of the cylinder head nuts after a few hours on new engines or engines that have had cylinder head maintenance!
First 1 hour
Belt tension – new belts loosen up very quickly and must be re-tensioned after an hour or two use.
NEW engines – Italian QC is poor and factory technicians routinely make serious errors assembling engines. Here are the most common that I have seen:
- Head nuts not properly torqued down (20 Nm).
- Studs in engine not installed with red threadlock: Exhaust port studs should be checked for threadlock. If they can be easily removed, they WILL come out at the most inconvenient time.
- Muffler mounting screws – Remove them, put blue threadlock on them, and reassemble. DO NOT OVERTORQUE! The threadlock is what holds the screw in place.
Every year (minimum)
- Rebuild the carburetor, including replacing the pop-off spring.
- Replace the fuel filter.
- Replace the spark plug.
- Check the ignition.
- Replace fuel system hoses if ethanol gasoline is used and the hoses are stiff.
- Check the torque of the cylinder head nuts, especially if you run your engine at or near sea level.
- Closely examine the ignition wiring and connectors and make sure there are no broken or loose wires.
Every 15 hours
- Change spark plug if AVGAS must be used
Every 25 hours
- Change spark plug
- Rebuild the carburetor – pilots would be surprised how at quickly the guts of these diaphragm carburetors go bad.
After the 1st hour consult the manual
Consult the Minari User Guide (on this site) for details on maintenance intervals and what to do.
Every 50 hours if AVGAS is used
- Check the decompression port (DCP) and clean it, if needed. Failure to clean the DCP will result in greatly increased effort needed to start the engine and will cause premature wear of the starter system.
- Remove carbon and/or lead deposits from the top of piston and cylinder head. Use a razor blade for the piston and a Dremel steel wire brush on the cylinder head. Failure to routinely remove deposits will increase compression, combustion temperatures, and will shorten engine life. If unleaded fuel is used, this maintenance may be done every 100 hrs.
Reed petal note: The word "segments" means "reeds". That is, at 100 hours the reed valve petals should be replaced. You do not want them breaking off and going through the engine as here. Photo courtesy of Tom Bird
Minari recommends that the piston (including the upper connecting rod bearing) be replaced every 200 hours. This is a very important task and must be done. Failure of this bearing will destroy the entire top end of the engine, including the connecting rod and crankshaft. Here is some how-to about this service.
Do not fail to clean the decompression port every 100 hours or as needed, especially if AVGAS must be used.