Spark plug reading for paramotors
by Had Robinson
updated July 30, 2020
The condition of the spark plug tells a lot about how an engine is performing. Reading spark plugs from carbureted 2 stroke engines is much more informative than reading plugs from fuel injected automobile engines. This is because the fuel mixture in carbureted engines is, basically, all over the place. In addition, ultralight engines are exempt from U.S. E.P.A. emission restrictions so engine can be tuned broadly, to extremes.
Engines that use leaded fuel of any kind will have more deposits on the spark plug which can interfere somewhat with reading the plug. It also means that leaded fuel use requires more frequent changes of the spark plug. However, if approved fuel additives are used with AVGAS, deposits will be next to nothing. (See the Fuel & Oil Specifications page for more info on this subject.)
How to read a 2 stroke spark plug
- Launch and fly the engine that you are testing.
- Set up to land in come convenient place.
- Run the engine at full throttle for about 3 minutes i.e. climb out.
- Immediately stop the engine with the kill switch (do NOT use the choke).
- Land with the power off.
- Either at the flying site or at your shop, remove the spark plug and examine it. Take a photo if you can and store it for comparisons later.
Here is an example of a spark plug in perfect condition. Note: there will always be a small amount of burned oil around the base of the plug. If the oil extends beyond the base, the plug probably has not been torqued down properly and is leaking.
Pilots are always welcome to send high resolution photos of spark plugs to our contact email address. I will take a look at them and give my opinion.
Examples of spark plugs
In addition to the photos below, Champion has this excellent website page with photos and explanation on reading spark plugs. The page, however, is mostly about the extremes of what happens to plugs in water-cooled automobile engines. Below I have posted actual photos from 2 stroke paramotors that should be studied carefully.
Engine maintenance is less and pollution is lower with non-leaded fuels and these are the only advantages. A plug that is too cold will be covered with black (unburned fuel) deposits and the engine may be hard to start and not reach peak horsepower. Most paramotor manufacturers specify spark plugs for hot and cold running environments and it is important to have the correct one. Generally, if the air temperature is usually over 80F use a cooler running spark plug.
Here is a healthy spark plug from an engine running non-leaded gasoline. It is slightly on the "cold" side. That is, the engine was running a bit more rich than it needed to be. Better a bit cold than too hot. There is a small amount of harmless fouling.
Below is a healthy spark plug from an engine running AVGAS treated with the TCP additive. The plug has about 25 hours on it and is at the end of its life. It has a trace of lead monoxide deposits which is normal. Most of the lead burned in the engine is converted to lead phosphate by the additive and ejected in the exhaust stream. Even a plug exposed to lead-free fuel would have had some deposits after 25 hours.
This spark plug is fouled from an engine that is running rich. The pilot of this engine used Amsoil's Dominator so there should be no issue with the combustion of the oil. Also note the black gunk at the base of the plug. It is likely that the plug was not torqued down properly and was leaking.
Here is a new plug, same engine, but the pilot closed the adjustable high speed jet 1/8th turn. Head temperature increased some but the plug is not fouled.
Engines that use ethanol blends will not last as long and why any other kind of fuel is preferable. Regardless of what kind of fuel is used, the spark plug will wear out and/or foul. It is so inexpensive to change out the spark plug and improve starting and high end performance and is why it should always be done.
This spark plug is from an AVGAS burning engine that did not have an anti-lead fouling additive mixed in. Note that lead monoxide is present close to the grounded electrode and absent from the cooler parts of the plug. The cylinder head had no lead deposits and the piston had minimal deposits. The only symptom the engine had was hard-starting because the plug is completely worn out. 100% pure premium gasoline is the only fuel preferable to AVGAS as unleaded allows greater times between servicing the top end (cleaning out the deposits). Ethanol fuels also leave little, if any, deposits but ethanol tears up the fuel system, leans out the air/fuel mixture, and does not mix as well with pure gasoline including AVGAS and why the engines wear out sooner than with pure gasoline.
Pilots should not change their spark plug type from the manufacturer's specification unless there is a clear and understandable reason to do so e.g. the plug is getting too hot (need a cooler plug) or fouls easily (needs a hotter plug). The quality of the fuel and the general environment where the engine is run (hot & humid or cold & dry) can help determine whether the plug should be hotter or colder.