paragliding training center
by Had Robinson.
updated August 15, 2018 -- please see the footnote 1 at the bottom of this page concerning AVGAS. What a circus from Miniplane we have to endure....
You have come to the right page if you want facts and references rather than rumors, unsubstantiated assertions, and hype and misinformation from the marketing department at Miniplane. (Anyone remember Ralph Nader and his dealings with GM? It isn't any different with us.)
Fueling equipment You will need the right equipment to mix, store, and transfer your fuel. Please see section "A. Equipment" on this page for information on what you need. Metal containers are the best for storing gasoline because, unlike plastic, UV from sunlight cannot penetrate metal. UV causes any kind of gasoline to deteriorate. If you do use plastic jugs, especially clear ones, store them in a cool, dark place.
Semi-synthetic oils are the best to use. Full (100%) synthetic oils should be used only according to the instructions below or what your particular engine manufacturer recommends. Only JASO FD rated oils should be used in paramotors if you want the highest quality engine lubrication and long life. This is because none of the oils specified by European manufacturers are easily available in the U.S. (except Castrol TTS).
Full synthetic oils Simonini give these instructions in their user manual for the Mini 2 Plus engine, one of the most durable and long-lasting engines made:
The MINI 2 PLUS engine is designed to operate with a gasoline/oil mixture. We recommend using a semi-synthetic oil (for example, BARDAHL VBA SYNT) that, although inferior to a pure synthetic, remains mixed with gasoline in the tank for a longer period. We do never (sic) recommend using Castrol TTS oil.
Simonini goes so far as to say this about the Castrol TTS oil (a 100% synthetic oil) further on in their manual:
We do never recommend using Castrol TTS Oil. None guarantees [sic] by using this oil will be applied.
That is, if you use Castrol TTS 100% synthetic oil in your Simonini engine, your engine warranty is void. There has always been questions about the ability of full synthetic oils to mix properly with gasoline and stay mixed. Then there is the German Fresh Breeze who re-manufacture the Simonini. In their user manual they recommend Castrol TTS oil above all others but require pilots to use AVGAS. It is possible that Castrol TTS does not mix well with gasoline containing ethanol but is OK with AVGAS. Apparently, other recommended full synthetic oils do not have this problem. Just the same, Simonini's statement about Castrol TTS is a warning for all pilots about the hazards of full synthetic oils. Thank you, Simonini for being useful -- Miniplane take note.
In the end, very few pilots put the hours and loads on their paramotors that professional pilots do. Consequently, it probably does not matter for most pilots whether they use semi or 100% synthetic oils.
Fuel/oil mixture ratios
USE ONLY APPROVED OILS! SEE PARAGRAPH "C" BELOW.
Top 80 engine – 2% (50:1) full or semi-synthetic oil with premium ethanol-free MOGAS or AVGAS1
Polini Thor engines – 2% (50:1) full synthetic oil with premium ethanol-free MOGAS or AVGAS
Minari engines – 2.5% (40:1) full or semi-synthetic oil with premium ethanol-free MOGAS or AVGAS
Fresh Breeze Simonini 200cc – 2% (50:1) full synthetic oil with AVGAS (preferably) or premium ethanol-free MOGAS
Simonini 200cc – The factory version of this engine has special fuel and oil requirements because of different tuning than the Fresh Breeze version.
Type of gasoline Remember that CHEAP GASOLINE CAN RUIN ENGINES, ESPECIALLY WHEN RUN AT OR NEAR SEA LEVEL. Make certain that the gasoline is fresh (less than 30 days old). Old fuel causes all kinds of performance and running problems. Fuel preservative helps but it is still better to have everything fresh.
1. Unleaded premium gasoline ethanol-free
2. Aviation gasoline (AVGAS) with the anti-fouling TCP fuel additive or equivalent.
3. Aviation gasoline (AVGAS)
4. Unleaded premium gasoline with ethanol <10%. Use semi-synthetic oil with ethanol blended fuels. If you must use fuel with ethanol, follow the instructions below
Premixed racing fuel – pilots who cannot find ethanol-free gasoline or AVGAS can purchase ready-to-use fuel (includes oil) made by VP Racing Fuels. These fuels are 94 octane and use JASO-FD full synthetic oil which makes them compatible with most paramotors. They have 50:1 and 40:1 mixes available. Most major distributors, including Wal-Mart and Home Depot, stock these premixed fuels but they are not cheap. VP Racing fuels contain stabilizers so that the containers can be opened, exposed to the air, and yet the fuel will remain fresh for a year. Accordingly, additives are used to prevent the deterioration of the oil that has been mixed with the gasoline.
Type of Oil – semi-synthetic and full synthetic oils must meet the JASO FD specifications. Here are some oils available in the U.S. that state they meet this rating. Lucas and Motul oils are available from BikeBandit. Amsoil oil is sold in most motorcycle shops. The ONLY AMSOIL product that is JASO-FD rated is the SABER. Do not use any other AMSOIL product in your paramotor!
Here are the approved oils:
1. Full synthetic 2 stroke oil: Amsoil
SABER; Bel-ray Si-7 Synthetic 2-Stroke Engine Oil;
Fuchs Silkolene Comp 2 Plus Pro full synthetic;
Motul 710 2T;
Cross Power 2-T; Red Line 2 Stroke Racing Oil; Shell Advance Ultra 2; Valvoline
2-Stroke Racing Oil
2. Semi-synthetic 2 stroke oil: Bel-Ray SL-2 Semi-Synthetic 2T Engine Oil; Fuchs Silkolene Comp 2 ester based semi synthetic; Lucas Semi-Synthetic 2-Cycle Oil; Motul 510 2T; Shell Advance VSX 2; Spectro Golden 2T Injector; SynGard Use semi-synthetic 2 stroke oil with ethanol gasoline blends (see below).
Miniplane recommends2 premium unleaded gasoline for the Top 80, Polini Thor, and Minari models. They recommend premium fuel because of its higher quality rather than its higher octane value. Cheap fuel has all sorts of problems, including cleanliness, low vapor pressure, and contaminants. ONLY USE GASOLINE FROM MAJOR REFINING COMPANIES IN YOUR PARAMOTOR. Chevron published this detailed technical review on motor fuel which is very helpful for those wishing to improve their knowledge of fuels rather than rely on hearsay and rumor of which there is way too much in the paramotoring community. Paramotor marketing departments want the world to think how "green" they are and will say anything, even it greatly shortens the life of their engines and causes other snarly problems.
EXXON has this to say about the lack of quality control in MOGAS (from their page on AVGAS),
Note that properties critical to aviation use (for example, vapor pressure and cleanliness) are not controlled to the same degree in automotive motor gasoline manufacture and handling. ExxonMobil aviation does not support or approve the use of Automotive Gasoline as aircraft fuel.
ROTAX, however, notes these important points about why pilots should use only premium fuel from a major (and busy) supplier and why a high octane value is needed:
Unfortunately, it is getting increasingly difficult to find gasoline that is free of ethanol in Europe and North America. Ethanol is the cause of numerous problems for the fuel systems in high performance two stroke engines and should be avoided, if at all possible (see below for detailed information on this).
Automotive gasoline that contains ethanol should only be purchased from a major company, like EXXON, ESSO, BP, Chevron or Shell, because their fuels contain important additives, especially detergents, that lessen the buildup of carbon inside the cylinder and gunk in the fuel system caused by the presence of ethanol. Lesser grades of fuel can be used but Miniplane notes that you may have higher running temperatures i.e. you may overheat your engine at higher loads and experience damage.
If you must use low octane/poor quality fuel, increase the thickness of the washer under the spark plug which lowers the compression ratio of the engine and also lowers the running temperature. Increasing the thickness of the washer can be quickly and easily done by adding a second or third washer from a used spark plug to the existing one. If you get too much spacing, you will not harm anything except lower the engine output. Alternately, the special aluminum spark plug spacer washers (2mm) are available from Miniplane-USA. Poor quality fuels will also vaporize (form bubbles) in the fuel system more readily which will lean out the air/fuel mixture.
It is important for pilots to note that automotive service station gasoline is formulated differently for the cold and hot seasons of the year. We have learned – the hard way – that gasoline refined during the winter months has problems with vapor lock when used in hot weather. That is, the fuel can turn to "fizz" (bubbles) inside the fuel system and cause vapor lock. This will starve the engine of fuel and can cause lean-out under high loads which can damage the engine. Therefore, it is a good idea not to use fuel refined in winter for use in the summer. It does not matter whether fuel preservative is used or not.
For those who want more of the science of the problems with vapor lock, Chevron Oil has this helpful article. It is obvious to see why the hot area around the fuel lines and carburetor can cause vapor lock in a paramotor, especially in hot climates.
If you want to understand this problem first hand, use a jiggle-siphon to move fuel from an elevated tank to another tank 3-4' below. As the fuel is rapidly moving through the siphon tube, jam the jiggle valve against the bottom of the upper tank and you will see a sudden appearance of bubbles in the siphon tube. This is caused by a negative pressure in the tube which causes the fuel to vaporize and form bubbles. These bubbles in the fuel system will stop the movement of fuel through a carburetor.
Aviation gasoline (AVGAS), on the other hand, rarely has issues with vapor lock because of its high quality and that its formulation does not change from summer to winter. Note that most paramotors use a vacuum to pump fuel from the tank to the carburetor, unlike other aircraft. This creates a low pressure on the fuel and it is easier for the fuel to reach its vapor pressure – and form bubbles which block the flow of fuel.
High flow rates in the fuel system discourages vapor lock and is why the small Top 80 experiences this problem more often than the bigger engines.
If there is any way to use fuel without ethanol, do so. If not, take note of the important precautions below. The engine manufacturers continue to issue warnings about the problems with fuels containing ethanol including the problems with 100% synthetic oils mixing with ethanol blends of gasoline. Ethanol, in a word, rots fuel system parts from the inside out, especially metal and most plastics. As the marine and go-kart guys note, ethanol should be banned from all fuels.
WARNING: DO NOT USE GASOLINE WITH MORE THAN 10% ETHANOL (despite what Miniplane says)
1. Semi-synthetic oils only Full synthetic oils do not mix as well with gasoline that contains ethanol. When the mixture sits in the fuel tank, the oil tends to separate out. Simonini notes this problem in their manual for the Mini 2 Plus. Some full synthetic oils e.g. Castrol Power RS TTS 2T mix so poorly with ethanol fuels that Simonini will void the engine warranty if those oils are used because the manufacturer has no control on what types of gasoline are used.
2. Fuel stabilizer Add Sta-Bil or SeaFoam fuel treatment (or equivalent) to help preserve ethanol blended fuels. Unless Chevron premium gasoline is used, it is helpful to add their Techron additive (or an equivalent) per the recommended amounts. This additive dissolves the gunk that ethanol creates. This additive (or its equivalent) is available at auto parts stores worldwide.
3. Fresh fuel Do NOT allow gasoline with ethanol to sit for more than a month in the fuel system as it can damage the metal and non-metal parts of the engine. If fuel stabilizer is used, blends can be stored in ordinary gasoline containers for many months IF NOT MIXED WITH OIL. If pilots store motors for more than a few weeks, they should purge the fuel lines and carburetor. Ethanol is a powerful solvent that causes non-metal fuel system parts (tubing, gaskets, diaphragms, filter material) to deteriorate. It can cause fuel lines to swell enough to allow the pickup tube filter in the fuel tank to fall off. Ethanol is hygroscopic and also conducts electricity. This causes electrolysis of the metal parts in the engine and is why those using two stroke engines in a marine environment have endless problems. The metering lever spring inside the Walbro carburetor will weaken from corrosion in the presence of ethanol blended fuels which is why it should be replaced every time the carburetor is rebuilt. Remember that fresh fuel (< 30 days old) is always better than old fuel, even when stabilizer is used. AVGAS, on the other hand, is manufactured to remain stable for years without the addition of any chemicals.
4. Carburetor maintenance Regularly test the pop-off pressure of your carburetor because of corrosion and weakening of the pop-off spring caused by electrolysis and/or the presence of water. Testing the pop-off (and rest) pressure is the only way to tell if the spring is bad. Miniplane-USA stocks the springs. Low pop-off pressure dramatically affects the high-end output of an engine due to a richening of the fuel mixture. Rebuild the carburetor as often as needed. Once a year may not be enough.
4. Water contamination Check that the gasoline does not contain either water (mixed in with the ethanol) or more than 10% ethanol. Wiki has a good article on the stability of gasoline, especially ethanol mixes, and what happens as these mixes age. This article from Machinery Lubrication describes what happens when water gets into the fuel.
5. Percent ethanol Test the ethanol percentage in the fuel. For about $10, pilots can buy an ethanol percent tester. If 10% ethanol fuel contains water the fuel tester will indicate an ethanol content <10%. This is another reason why pilots who live in humid parts of the world should not use ethanol fuels in their engines unless they are certain that it is not contaminated with water. For example, if you test fuel that is supposed to contain ethanol and the tester shows it to be ethanol free, the fuel has been fully saturated with water. Such fuel can ruin a 2 cycle engine.
6. Air-fuel mixture Be sure that the engine is not overheating. The Walbro Service manual notes that ethanol blends will cause carburetors designed for pure gasoline (the WG8) to run leaner and, therefore, hotter. This is another reason for pilots to install a cylinder head temperature gauge.
ROTAX warns that their engines will experience damage with ethanol fuel blends greater than 5%. This warning from ROTAX should alert paramotor pilots of the problems caused by ethanol. All U.S. blends have 10% or more ethanol. Your region may have more or less ethanol. Be certain to find out what your local blend ratio is. Miniplane does not care if you blow up your engine using the wrong oils and fuels. "It's all your fault!" etc.
Recreational Power Engineering, the U.S. distributor of the 2 stroke Hirth engines, has these recommendations on fuel and oil for the Hirth engine. They warn against using ethanol fuels and synthetic oils in humid environments. They approve the use of AVGAS if anti-lead fouling additives are used, like TCP.
Marine engines and small aircraft engines have much in common. MarineMechanic.com has this informative article on coping with the poor quality gasoline we have to use these days. They emphasize the importance of additives and making sure the engine is tuned up correctly and how to reduce carbon buildup inside the engine. For paramotors this often translates into having "stuck" piston rings which quickly ruin the cylinder.
Moeller Marine Products, manufacturers of fuel system components, has this warning,
Ethanol is a common additive to blend the fuels with, and while ethanol may not pose the environmental hazards of other gas additives, the chemical properties of ethanol have the potential to cause severe damage to engine systems.
Walbro, the manufacturer of the carburetor used on Miniplane engines, warns users in this video about using ethanol blended fuels and how to prevent damage to the carburetor and fuel system.
Here are some photos of a carburetor that stopped working due to water and gunk from gasoline with ethanol. In the left photo, water and gunk covers parts of the fuel pump diaphragm. The pump could not do its job. In the right photo, the fuel inlet screen is clogged. This carburetor could not deliver fuel. The pilot was lucky that he did not burn up his engine.
I discussed ethanol fuels with Bel-Ray, a manufacturer of 2-stroke motorcycle racing lubricants. They noted that their oils mix correctly with ethanol fuels but warn users that the fuel must not have ethanol >10%. FRAM, a manufacturer of filters, warns users not to use ethanol fuels that have more than 10% ethanol because it will damage their filters. Poulan, a chain saw manufacturer, warns of the serious problems caused by blends with ethanol >10% or which have been contaminated with water. Seastar Solutions, a major manufacturer of marine fuel system parts, warns owners to replace their fuel filters every 50 hours or once a year because of the effects of ethanol in gasoline. They also warn owners that ethanol causes deterioration of fuel system lines, making them hard and brittle from the inside out.
Bottom line: Use gasoline without ethanol.
The piston pictured below seized as a result of a lack of lubrication. The owner of this Top 80 stated that he did not put gasoline without oil in his motor. The likely explanation is that the ethanol fuel had been contaminated with water, causing the lubricating oil to separate out. Chris Barker of Royal Purple synthetic oils confirmed in a telephone call to me that water contaminated ethanol fuels will do this.
To find sources of ethanol free fuel, go to this site -> http://pure-gas.org. If you find ethanol free fuel at a service station, check it before filling up as it may be mislabeled. Unfortunately, ethanol free fuels are becoming more difficult to find.
Unless AVGAS is used, be certain that fuel is fresh (less than 2 weeks old is best). Those who live in humid climates must exercise much greater care when using fuels mixed with ethanol because of the hazard of water contamination. If fuel stabilizer is used, ordinary gasoline can be stored for a year or so (but I never would store it this long).
All service station gasoline (other than AVGAS) deteriorates quickly and loses its octane value after just a few weeks because of oxidation. If you store gasoline, add a fuel stabilizer like Sta-Bil which can keep it fresh for a year in sealed containers. There is also a product from Sta-Bil that is specifically for fuels used in marine (humid) environments called Marine Formula Sta-Bil. If I lived in a particularly hot and humid climate, I would add this special version of Sta-Bil to my fuel if AVGAS was not available.
Honda Motor Co. has these words about the importance of fresh fuel,
"Fuel deterioration and oxidation can occur in as little as 30 days and may cause damage to the carburetor and/or fuel system. ...Deteriorated gasoline will cause hard starting, and it leaves gum deposits that clog the fuel system. If the gasoline in your engine deteriorates during storage you may need to have the carburetor and other fuel system components serviced and replaced. ...You can extend fuel storage life by adding a gasoline stabilizer that is formulated for that purpose, or you can avoid fuel deterioration problems by draining the fuel tank and carburetor." – from the 2011 Owner's Manual for the GX120, GX160, and GX200 engines
AVGAS may be used in paramotor engines and is preferable to all other fuels because of its high octane, stability, and, especially its purity. It also mixes well with all 2 stroke oils. All engine manufacturers (except Miniplane as of 2018) note that AVGAS does not harm their engines, contrary to various rumors that circulate on the blogs. In fact, some manufacturers specify that ONLY aviation gasoline should be used in their engines or that it is the preferred fuel. For example, Nirvana Systems of Czechoslovakia has this in one their engine manuals:
Solo and NIRVANA recommend using 100% synthetic Castrol TTS in correct oil/petrol mixture, which prevent[s] combustion chamber and exhaust carbonization. Do not store mixed petrol longer than [a] few days, max 2 – 3 weeks. You can mix Castrol TTS with leaded or unleaded petrol. However leaded petrol is preferred. Always use quality petrol.
AVGAS is the best fuel if your ambient air temperature is over 100 degrees F, as it is where we fly. However, AVGAS is not easily available to paramotor pilots in Europe so they often must use the ethanol blends – and suffer the problems of ethanol. Simonini actually warns pilots to use only semi-synthetic oil in their engines but this is because AVGAS is not easily available – except in the U. S. and other non-European countries.
1. It has the highest octane of all gasoline. This, alone, makes AVGAS preferable. The higher the octane, the less damaging pre-ignition there will be in high compression ratio engines, like paramotors. Ordinary automobile fuel oxidizes quickly and, as a consequence, its octane value drops quickly in just weeks during storage.
2. It contains the octane enhancing compound tetraethyl lead. When this compound is burned, it forms lead monoxide deposits which coat various parts of the combustion chamber, especially the spark plug. According to the multi-cylinder aviation engine manufacturer ROTAX, lead monoxide deposits can damage the crankshaft bearings due to the deposits flaking off from the combustion chamber and then being sucked back into the crankcase in their multi-piston two stroke engines. This is something that is difficult or impossible to occur in single cylinder paramotor engines. Furthermore, the use of the TCP anti-fouling additive scavenges the tetraethyl lead in the fuel and coverts it to lead phosphate, a harmless substance that will not affect bearings.
Some claim that ring sticking is more common from the additional lead deposits in AVGAS than from the carbon deposits created by the use of any fuel. There is no proof of this. Ring sticking is caused by cheap oil and/or engine overheating, regardless of whether the fuel is leaded or unleaded. Suffice it to say, overheating is the most common problem in engines which are not properly maintained. Red Line, a manufacturer of 2 stroke synthetic oil lubricants, notes what happens in one of their technical documents, "The time indicated [in the graph] is the time required for the lubricant to decompose to a sticky mass capable of sticking a two-cycle piston ring."
3. It is the most stable of all gasoline and can be stored for long periods (years).
4. Because of its high quality, it is less likely to cause vapor lock or fizz, a serious conditions that causes fuel starvation resulting in engine overheating.
5. It will not harm fuel system parts (despite the unsubstantiated claims by Miniplane), as does gasoline containing ethanol.
6. Cost is about double that of premium unleaded, unfortunately.
7. It mixes well with all types of (2) stroke oil.
8. It does cause increased fouling of spark plugs and, to a lesser extent, results in more deposits in the combustion chamber, especially on the top of the piston. This is remedied by the use of approved fuel additives (see below).
9. It is the purest of all types of gasoline.
There are some competent mechanics who flat-out state that AVGAS will ruin paramotor engines. I wish I could know the circumstances under which they believe engines were harmed. We have used AVGAS for over a decade here and so appreciate its stability and quality. Maybe it's the lead fouling and/or mixing AVGAS with inexpensive two stroke oils that caused the problems? Addition of the TCP additive eliminates the fouling problem so that cannot be a reason. I can only guess what the issues are. If Fresh Breeze and Solo prefer that AVGAS be used in their 2 stroke paramotors, what can the issue be?
Wiki has a long article on aviation gasoline for those who desire to increase their knowledge of engine fuels. The dirt-bike guys have commented on some of the questionable assertions made about AVGAS that circulate on blogs. I have repeatedly requested more information, photographs, and/or the affected parts that have been supposedly ruined by AVGAS, but have yet to receive anything. I will even pay shipping. I could be missing something, so please help out here if you have some special situation I am unaware of. If AVGAS is the best for four stroke aviation engines, what could it do to two stroke engines and why? (We already know that it should not be used in multi-cylinder two stroke engines without the addition of the TCP or equivalent FAA approved additive.)
Please review this article on airport access for ultralights for where and how to purchase AVGAS.
If AVGAS is treated with the additive TCP (or an equivalent), the problem of lead fouling is alleviated. A quart of TCP (cost <$40 US) will treat 320 gallons. This comes out to about $ 0.13/gal, and is well worth it, considering that less engine maintenance will be needed. For info on how TCP works, read this pamphlet from Alcor, the manufacturer.
Below is a Thor 130 engine with approximately 130 hours of run time. AVGAS was used exclusively in this engine without any anti-fouling additives. The cylinder head is nearly 100% free of any lead deposits. Lead deposits do not tend to form on the cooler internal parts of the combustion chamber, like the cylinder head here. The red arrows point to small flakes of lead monoxide that were probably lodged on the edges of spark plug and broke off when the plug was removed. They are soft and harmless in single cylinder 2 stroke engines and are expelled with the exhaust when they break free from engine parts. Note that the spark plug is covered with lead monoxide deposits (light yellow in color). Large 4 stroke aircraft engines have expensive spark plugs that get just as fouled as the plug in this photo. On the other hand, our plugs cost a few dollars and are easy to replace.
Here is the same engine with a view of the top of the piston. It runs much hotter than the cylinder head and has more lead deposits. However, even after 130 hours, these deposits are minimal. If the pilot had used an anti-fouling additive for lead deposits, he probably would not have had to clean the piston. 10 minutes with a razor blade took care of the carbon and lead deposits in this engine.
This is another photo of the same engine as above. Typical in paramotor engines run with untreated AVGAS, the spark plug has the most lead fouling. This plug has about 50% more life before it is worn out but should be replaced because it is badly fouled.
Below is a spark plug from an engine that used AVGAS treated with the TCP additive. The plug had more than 60 hours on it and is completely worn out but nearly free of (harmless) lead phosphate deposits which are created by the action of TCP on tetraethyl lead. Even a plug run in lead-free fuel would have had deposits.
This spark plug is from an AVGAS burning engine that did not have an anti-lead fouling additive mixed in. Note that lead monoxide is only present close to the grounded electrode and absent from the cooler parts of the plug. The cylinder head had no lead deposits and the piston had minimal deposits. The only symptom the engine had was hard-starting because the plug is worn out. Lead monoxide deposits can be eliminated by a fuel additive, like TCP. Engines that use ethanol blends will not last as long and why any other kind of fuel is preferable. Regardless of what kind of fuel is used, the spark plug will wear out and/or foul. It is so inexpensive to change out the spark plug and improve starting and high end performance.
Here is a plug from a Polini Thor 130 used for tandem flying. AVGAS treated with the TCP additive was used exclusively in the engine. It has about 30 hours on it and is at the end of its life. Even so, the plug has a light fouling of (white) lead phosphate, the byproduct of the chemical action of the TCP additive on tetraethyl lead. The cylinder head and piston crown will have little if any fouling. Compare the plug below with the plug above. Both engines had about the same number of hours on their respective plugs. It shows what a difference the TCP fuel additive makes.
Below is a photo of an EGT sensor that has a small coating of lead monoxide (light yellow in color) from the burning of AVGAS without the TCP additive. It is easily removed with a wire brush. As with carbon deposits, the lead deposits must be removed periodically from the top of the piston and cylinder head, along with the carbon deposits. This is necessary to help the engine cool more efficiently.
Running any engine too hot (lean conditions) will cause the lubricating oil to burn at the lands, including the sides of the piston, due to piston overheating, regardless of what kind of fuel is used. This creates the black gummy deposits which can bind the ring. Red Line (a two stroke oil manufacturer) notes this in one of their technical documents.
This piston came from a fuel starved engine which overheated. Even though unleaded fuel was used, the piston was hot enough to burn the lubricating oil that is the surface of the piston. The piston ring was stuck in the lands due to the burnt oil. The pilot flew this engine at the beach. The long vertical gouge was probably caused by a sand grain getting sucked into the engine and then caught between the cylinder and the piston.
Cheap fuel/oil, old fuel, and/or ethanol fuels contaminated by water will leave damaging deposits that can find their way into the piston ring and cause it to stick. Another problem with the cheap oils is that they tend to rapidly clog the decompression port, if present, on 2 stroke engines. Lead deposits from AVGAS are not black and gummy but light yellow (lead monoxide) or white (lead phosphate), if TCP is used.
Note about increasing the oil mix ratio: Increasing the amount of oil in the gasoline above the manufacturer's recommended value does not prolong the life of the engine. Increasing the oil mix increases the viscosity of the mix and, as a result, leans out the fuel mixture which can cause overheating of the engine.
1. Miniplane Thor and Top 80 engines – Full synthetic or semi-synthetic 2-cycle oil at 2% mix (50:1 ratio). Semi-synthetic oils mix better with ethanol fuels. Miniplane has reported that using full synthetic oils at the 2% mix ratio may cause engine overheating under certain conditions. It is a good idea to keep an eye, therefore, on your CHT while running the engine.
Higher mix ratio – Miniplane allows a 1.5% mix (67:1) for the Top 80 and Thor models if full synthetic oil only is used but I do not recommend it. Do not use gasoline containing ethanol at the higher mix ratios. You must use either AVGAS or premium unleaded that has no ethanol in it. The brands of oil Miniplane recommends for a 1.5% mix are not available in the U.S. However, the recommended oil brands all have the JASO FD rating. Why use the lesser oil mix? Engines using the 1.5% mix will run cooler and more efficiently because of the lower viscosity of the fuel mix. In addition, the lower ratio has less negative impact on the octane value of the fuel. That is, the addition of oil to the fuel mix lowers the octane value of the fuel. Lowering the octane of the fuel can cause overheating and pre-ignition. We have observed that the 1.5% mix results in a smoother running engine and a small improvement in power output. The downside is that long term use of the higher mix ratio appears to cause premature engine wear, especially in the upper connecting rod bearing and wrist pin.
2. Minari – Full or semi-synthetic oil at 2.5% (40:1)
3. Fresh Breeze Simonini Mini 2 Plus – Full synthetic oil at 2% (50:1) AVGAS is preferred. Fresh Breeze also prefers that pilots use Castrol TTS oil.
4. Simonini Mini 2 Plus – The factory version of this engine has special fuel and oil requirements because of different tuning than the Fresh Breeze version.
The makers of the following oils state that they meet the JASO FD rating, the highest standard for two stroke oils. You should not use oil that does not meet the JASO FD rating. Oils with lower ratings carbonize at lower temperatures which is why full synthetic oil is the best to use.
Bel-ray Si-7 Synthetic 2-Stroke Engine Oil
Fuchs Silkolene Comp 2 Plus Pro full synthetic
Motul 710 2T
Motorex Cross Power 2-T
Red Line 2 Stroke Racing Oil (Red Line specifically states that their oils meet the JASO FD rating)
Shell Advance Ultra 2
Semi-synthetic oils that meet the JASO FD rating. The semi-synthetics are considerably less expensive than the full synthetic oils and mix better with gasoline containing ethanol.
Bel-Ray SL-2 Semi-Synthetic 2T Engine Oil
Fuchs Silkolene Comp 2 ester based semi synthetic
Lucas Semi-Synthetic 2-Cycle Oil (the easiest to find)
Motul 510 2T
Shell Advance VSX 2
Spectro Golden 2T Injector
SynGard (this oil is hard to find)
The best mixing bottle is from Shoreline Marine and is sold by Sports Academy and others. It is simple, well marked, and can be sealed to keep dirt out.
Some mix their fuel at a lesser ratio than the recommended 50:1 for the Top 80, e.g. 40:1, thinking that it helps lubricate engine parts better or is necessary when breaking in a new Top 80. Both Miniplane and Polini warn against this practice as it can damage an engine due to the increased fuel mixture viscosity which can lean out the fuel/air mixture and overheat the engine. Always be sure to follow the recommendations of the engine manufacturer. Pilots have to resist rumors and hearsay and stick to the engine manuals and information from well-researched sources like this web site.
Here is a discussion of what can happen when lower fuel oil ratios are used in engines where this is not recommended. It will lean out the fuel burn and can foul the combustion chamber, including the piston ring, regardless of the type of gasoline used.
Minari has this note in their user manual, "WARNING: Please note that an excessive amount of oil does not stretch the life of the engine. a wrong quantity of oil leads to seizure." That is, too much oil in the gasoline can cause overheating in some engines.
Polini has this note in their user manual for the Thor engines, "...mixes that contain too much oil do not extend the engine’s life."
Everything depends on how the engine is engineered and the jetting used in the carburetor. Do not experiment with the fuel/oil ratio but do just what the manufacturer specifies.
Per Miniplane's recommendation and the experience of many pilots, it is always best to mix small quantities of oil and fuel just before use and not store the mix more than (2) weeks no matter what kind of gasoline is used. The lubricating properties of the oil are affected by long term contact with any kind of gasoline, with fuel additives, and especially with ethanol blends. I mix fuel and oil (2) gallons at a time. It is a nuisance but it means my fuel mix is always fresh.
Always fly safely and courteously.
1 In July 2018 Miniplane released this cryptic bulletin concerning the use of AVGAS in the Top 80, "...although in our user manual we have never
recommended the use of AVGAS, many customers have decided to use it following, according to current consuetude [sic], information randomly collected from the web. This type of fuel has never been
tested by us and we can not guarantee that it can not cause problems, not least that of a poor compatibility with the oils that can be easily purchased in the motorbike, boat, etc. market. In any
case, as explained on many occasions, the use of AVGAS is not necessary for the operation of the engine, at the moment we are not able to confirm, even if we suspect it, that it is even harmful.
One reason why we are now certain that we can advise against its use is that we have received a warning from one of our suppliers, he confirms that AVGAS gasoline causes problems to some
components of the petrol circuit and consequently to the engine. No problem for lead-free commercial gasoline, or with alcohol up to 20%, in this case, however, we advise you to check the
compatibility of the oil."
Which components in the engine? What did it do? What parts of a Walbro carburetor would AVGAS damage that MOGAS would not? In over ten years of AVGAS use, we have not experienced any damage to the fuel systems or engines in our region other than the usual damage done by all gasoline i.e. aging of fuel lines. What is the mystery component in AVGAS that does this? We do not have the same brands of oils available in the U.S. that are available in Europe. Our MOGAS is not the same. Has Miniplane tested U.S. oil brands and U.S. fuels? What part does the supplier make? It is possible that Miniplane has a new part in the fuel system that may be affected but what? If that is the case, we need to be careful. What Miniplane has written here is vague and not particularly helpful. How does anyone check "the compatibility of the oil"? What are the criteria? AVGAS just stores better (unmixed) than any other type of fuel. If for no other reason, this is why we use it in our very hot environment, despite its high cost. Why hasn't Miniplane tested AVGAS? As a degreed organic chemist once-upon-a-time, I am somewhat surprised by the bulletin. I have contacted Miniplane am trying to find out what they are talking about and will let everyone know. They will never let anyone connect with the engineers so we have to deal with marketing departments (a.k.a salesmen) who only have one goal: sell more whatever it is.
2Miniplane's website is not set up like most. To view their fuel and oil recommendations, click on this link, then "engine" on the left, and then "mixture" at the top.
3CAUTION! I no longer recommend using a 1.5% mix even if the engine manufacturer allows it. It appears that the higher mix ratio increases wear of the upper connecting rod bearing and wrist pin in a test engine that had been run exclusively at the 1.5% mix for over 300 hours. This part of the engine has the poorest lubrication which may be why the increased wear with the higher fuel/oil mix ratio.