paragliding training center
by Had Robinson with the help of many others, including Ken Hudon-Jorgensen and Chad Bastian
Do you want a long and safe flying career with maximum fun? Here's how.
If you are not 100% confident that you are ready to launch, DON'T! Pay no attention to anyone else. If you do not feel right about flying, pack up, and help the other pilots if they request it. The more experienced a pilot gets, the more he will have "I-don't-feel-quite-right-about-this" moments. They result from subconscious assimilation of facts that give the pilot warning in advance. Trust your instincts! If the site makes you afraid, stay on the ground because your mind is not ready to fly.
It sounds simple but do not launch until you have a place where you will land. If something happens, like a wind change, make sure you have an emergency LZ that will work. Did you personally go to the LZ and check it out? What are the obstructions? What if you have a cascading event, like a cravat at launch? What sort of things can you hit if you are unable to turn safely? What will the air be like at the LZ when you plan to land?
Failure to do a proper pre-flight check is extremely dangerous. Here is what can happen....
Memorize 123ABCD. This is the check-in routine we teach. There are too many unnecessary accidents that occur and all of them have one thing in common: pilot error. All it takes is one problem accompanied by another, and then another. These are the ingredients for disaster.
You must have a thorough pre-flight check list/routine that you do EVERY TIME before launching.
Make sure you understand how to check the weather.
The photo below is of a pilot who launched in late morning conditions (after 10AM) in the desert southwest mountains during mid-June. The thermals coming up the mountain face were already strong. Right next to this thermal was bullet sink – and he flew right between them. The glider experienced a dramatic 50%+ collapse and the pilot was not able to maintain directional control. The glider did a hard turn to the right and he went into the ground. The pilot was seriously hurt but has fully recovered, thankfully. You do NOT want to be in a paraglider a.) that is near the terrain and b.) when conditions are strong such as during the summer months in the middle of the day. Ninety percent of the time, you will be OK. It is the ten percent that may get you. This week (Jan 5, 2014) we had a convergence of high and low pressure systems that brought temperatures in certain parts of the eastern U.S. to -15 F and wind gusts of 60 mph. It is the same with the air in the desert during midday in summer. The terrain and intensely heated air can converge and form "sleepers" – intense movements of air that are geometrically stronger than average. Why take the chance?
Many instructors, including this one, warn against flying in the mountains when both ridge lift and thermals are present for this reason. They can combine to make the air dangerous. It is another reason why we at Southwest Airsports train via towing in the flat plateau west of the Rio Grande river. After adequate experience (and if the pilots are ready), we go to the mountains.
A nationally known pilot was scratching for thermal lift close to the ground in the flatlands of central Florida. He had a bad frontal collapse on a competition (unrated) gilder and went in. He experienced serious injury including a concussion. He was fortunate that he tucked as he hit. Scratching is not necessarily a mistake but close to the ground with a comp wing? Turbulence can change everything in a moment and you do not have the altitude to recover.
Per the above incident, if the pilot had been 500' higher, the collapse would have been alarming but not dangerous. He would have recovered just fine. Pilots must never get a false sense of security from thinking "I'm close to the ground so I'm safe!" It is a dangerous lie that we naturally have as mono-planar creatures. Altitude is always safer and the more the better. It takes mental training to learn this and apply it in all conditions at all times.
I have watched -- time after time -- pilots launching in light winds at thermic sites. This is exceedingly dangerous. Valle de Bravo had a half dozen accidents during the 2008 season. Roldanillo had at least that many during the 2015 season. At least four of them involved serious injury. These accidents could have been avoided as they were all a result of pilot errors that, often enough, cascaded. Jeff Huey is an experienced and competent pilot and was participating in the competition at Valle. He was nearly paralyzed because of his injuries. In his case, he launched even though his glider was not properly inflated. Another pilot had problems inflating at launch but launched anyway. He went into the trees and then fell, breaking his back in several places.
Most of the time, a wobbly, partially inflated glider will get you away from the hill but then there are the other times when a gust or some other turbulence complicates everything – and quickly. No one wants a cascading event but they happen often enough that pilots should be certain everything is perfect before they launch.
Another common mistake is not flying at trim speed (the fully hands-up position). Experienced General Aviation (GA) pilots know that speed is safety and control. An aircraft that has energy has safety. It is a very difficult thing for pilots to train themselves that speed is always good. (Here are some brief summaries of GA pilots who died because they were going too slow, stalling their aircraft.) Too many instructors (especially those who have been teaching for a long time without continuing education) tell students that flying with a good amount of brake will make their glider more stable, especially when they encounter turbulence. This is untrue and has caused countless accidents.
A slightly more pressurized glider from applying more brake has little effect when the glider is hit with air going down at 6+ mph.
A slower moving glider is more prone to stall and spin if the pilot encounters turbulence. Also, if he sets up for landing with a lot of brake, he can be guaranteed to have a hard landing. A glider flown with a lot of brake has minimal energy or, in another way, has minimal reserves if a recovery is needed.
A landing flare executed on a glider that already has lots of brake will have far less impact than if the glider comes roaring in. SPEED IS GOOD! Pilots must tell themselves this continually. The ONLY other time you want to be in the brakes is when you are well away from the ground and coring a narrow thermal.
When I land, I have my hands almost all the way up until just before I touch the ground. So what if I am skidding along for a few feet? You won't do a face plant – it's impossible. What it will do is when you do bury the brakes, the glider will powerfully surge behind you, stop, and give you plenty of momentary lift. If fact, if you are landing into moderate head winds, you might even be taken back up in the air. This is why "touch and goes" are so important. It is easy to do them with PPG but not with PG, unless you are at a site where you can safely top land.
This year (2013) at Valle de Bravo, a pilot was seriously injured when she did a forward inflation at the main launch. Running full speed, she brought her wing up just fine but failed to slow it down (check the surge) when it came overhead. Naturally, the glider kept right on going. It had a complete collapse causing the pilot to fall about 8' to the ground out in front.
She was lucky and only experienced a concussion and a banged-up face. Her first mistake was to do a forward inflation at a mountain launch site.
In a forward inflation, only the best pilots can sense the condition and location of the glider. Even for experienced pilots, forward inflations can be frightening which is why we never do them unless they are absolutely necessary. (Generally, if you have to do a forward inflation at a mountain launch, wait for the air to pick up or fly another day.) Her second mistake was she neither looked at her wing nor was she able to sense its condition. If she had spent time kiting at the LZ or some other safe location, she could have likely avoided the accident. She was lucky. Lastly, what in the world was she or her instructor thinking? What is a new P2 pilot doing in the rowdy air at Valle?
Another time, we had a visiting pilot – a P5 – who got in trouble at our most challenging site in the southwest, Lees Lookout. He did a reverse inflation but turned immediately when the glider came up rather than stabilize the glider overhead and then turn and go. The same thing happened to him as to the pilot above. His glider surged overhead in front of him because of a sudden lull in the air coming in. He went tumbling down the steep and rocky face of the launch site. Luckily, only his glider was damaged. Part of the problem was he was a coastal pilot and learning to fly in such places in like learning to swim with a life jacket on. He rarely, if ever, flew at high desert mountain sites.
If you want to impress others at a launch site, get your glider up over your head, take 5 seconds to look at it, and then turn and go. Other good pilots will recognize that you are not only competent but a safety-minded pilot and will give you an earned "nod." However, there will be some who will not have a clue what you are doing....
The USPPA has published this page with some of the most common causes of accidents and how to avoid them.
Do NOT take chances when you fly. Assume everything will go wrong and you will be more careful. Fly modest wings (EN A, A-B). Experts, including Bruce Goldsmith, stress the fact in this article that flying EN A class gliders is smart, no matter how good a pilot you are. I sometimes fly an EN C wing and the only important advantage I have is a little better glide but I pay for it with a wing that moves around a lot in the air. Be extremely cautious near the ground! This is what “gets” most pilots. Here are some words by some experienced pilots and instructors.
David Dagaudt, French Champion, designer, and Ozone test Pilot:
Spend flying time on the ground! Ground handling is the best way to develop a feel for a wing and an understanding of the machine. The level of ease with the wing you feel on take-off is a great indicator of the level of glider control in the air. …When you can do what you want with your wing on the ground, it will be the same in the air, and vice versa. If your take-offs are risky, then you can say that the main risk you face in the air is from the wing above your head!
A confident and competent launch sets the tone for the rest of the flight. The 15 Minute Rule: When you get to a flying site, spend 15 minutes watching the wind and the sky before making the fly/no-fly decision. If you see unsafe conditions, for example, peak gusts stronger than your personal limit, reset your time and spend another 15 minutes watching. Pre-flight Safety: Spend a little extra time on pre-flight safety rather than launch a hang glider with the strap unhooked or a paraglider with the leg straps unclipped.
Dust devils on hard ground are often invisible, and even a weak dust devil can be lethal near the ground. Don’t select an LZ – select the air you will be landing in. [When landed], disconnect yourself from the wing immediately before a dust devil sneaks up on you.
Practice is the key to the secret of flying.