Specifications for the Polini Thor models
Most troubleshooting, assembly, & tips are the same as with the Top 80
Compression, engine – 130-150 psi, depending on altitude. This is what you can expect for a new engine. Used will be less.
Cylinder base gasket – thickness 0.5mm, install gasket with the lettering facing down. Never use sealant on engine gaskets. It is unnecessary (manifold gaskets are the only exception)
Cylinder head gasket – install with the ridge on the gasket UP
Cylinder Head Temperature Maximum 230°-250°C This may be increased to 265°C-280°C for brief periods. These values are from the Polini User Manual which seem high. We use the TTO brand of gauges which register a lower average maximum running temperature than the Polini values. Under full load, I have rarely seen the temperature exceed 180°C. In any case I would not run the engine above 200°C using the TTO CHT.
Fuel line/tubing size – Use Tygon® LP1100 Low Permeation Fuel Tubing (ethanol resistant). It is available from Miniplane-USA. Do NOT use ordinary vinyl tubing as it will become stiff quickly and stress the connections on the tank and engine. Auto parts stores do NOT have the right type.
- carburetor to inline filter to fuel tank ID 4.8mm (3/16") x OD 8mm (5/16")
Fuel pump vacuum – 5" Hg (dry) 7" Hg (wet w/ fuel)
Fuel Info – Note: The Polini manual specifies that pilots use unleaded fuel (the only kind available to pilots in the EU). We contacted Polini and they specifically stated in writing (available on request) that pilots may use AVGAS in any of their engines. AVGAS is preferred over gasoline containing ethanol.
Ignition, coil – The official Polini user manual states that the spark plug boot terminal to ground is 5K Ohms but a new Thor 130 measured 9K Ohms which means that the secondary wire is a carbon-core ignition noise suppressing type i.e. some Thor models may have different values.
Ignition coil primary resistance (all models except the 190) – 1.6K Ohms (blue wire to engine ground)
Ignition coil secondary resistance – 9K Ohms ±10% (spark plug terminal to engine ground) Can be 5K Ohms on some models.
Ignition magneto coil resistance – 290 Ohms
Mounts, engine – 30mmL x 30mmW x 8mm (stud x socket) There are (4) mounts, total
Muffler spring removal – Use paraglider line to stretch the springs for replacement/removal. Do NOT use pliers to stretch the springs because this will nick the tempered surface of the spring and weaken it. Here is a video on how to properly do it
- Thor 100 20.5 @ 8,900 RPM
- Thor 130 21.5 HP @ 8,800 RPM
- Thor 190 27 HP @ 7,400 RPM
- Thor 200 29 HP @ 7,400 RPM
- Thor 250 36 HP @ 7,500 RPM (Dual Spark engine 36.5 HP)
Propeller shaft, seal – 26 x 36 x 7 mm
Redrive oil – Here is a list of the correct oils that may be used in the Thor redrive.
Spark plug (other than the Thor 250) – NGK BR10EG, gap 0.9mm (0.035") This is a resistor type spark plug. Pilots may also use the B10EG/ES or B9EG/ES. Use of a non-resistor plug will only increase the amount of noise created by the ignition that may be picked up by a two-way radio. BE SURE TO PUT RED THREADLOCK ON THE PLUG TERMINAL OR IT WILL LOOSEN AND SELF DESTRUCT!
Spark plug Thor 250 – see the Thor 250 page
Special tools for the Thor engines. These include the special pullers used to disassemble the engine.
Starter cord – 1.8m (6') When cord is fully installed, wind the spool 3X to ensure adequate tension on the cord which keeps the pulley out of the propeller.
Starter cord pulleys – Harken 082 (superior to the OEM Viadana)
Starter mounting screws – (3) 5mm x 80mm and (1) mm x 25mm. However, the bottom 80mm screw should be replaced with a 90mm screw and locknut.
Note: The Italian paramotor manufacturers continue to use button-head screws on their engines, regardless whether they are needed or not. Button-head screws have soft heads which make them very easy to strip with a hex bit when attempting to remove them. Replace them with hex-head or socket-head screws, as necessary. Go figure....
Torque values – The link is to the Top 80 specification page which has a thorough torque section with explanations. Check the Top 80 specifications page if you can't find what you need below. If you do not see the particular screw, bolt, or nut below, use the general values in the table below which are for metric class 4.6 and 8.8 fasteners. The lower value is for 4.6 and the higher is for 8.8. Most smaller screws are class 4.6. The lower values should be used on aluminum fasteners. However, if the fastener (e.g. screw/bolt) enters threads that are aluminum (most paramotors), use the lower value. Aluminum is soft and threads in this metal can be easily stripped.
- M4 1, 2.5 Nm
- M5 2, 5 Nm
- M6 3.5, 9 Nm
- M7 6, 15 Nm
- M8 8.5, 21 Nm
Threadlock – read this important page on threadlock and how to use it and when NOT to use it.
Carburetor screws 6mm – 8 Nm
Crankcase screws 6mm – 8 Nm
Crankshaft nut, clutch side – 60 Nm
Crankshaft nut, starter side – 40 Nm
Cylinder head nuts
- 7mm Thor 100,130 – 14 Nm
- 6mm Thor 200 – 12 Nm
- 8mm Thor 200 – 18 Nm
Engine to frame button head screws 8mm – 10 Nm – use Blue threadlock
Exhaust stud nuts 6mm – 10 Nm – use RED threadlock.
Magneto bolts – 9 Nm
Muffler button head screws 8mm – 10 Nm – use BLUE threadlock
Propeller central screw – 40 Nm – use BLUE threadlock
Reed valve screws – 8 Nm
Spark Plug – 21 Nm DO NOT USE THREADLOCK ON SPARKPLUGS!
Starter screws – 2 Nm It is easy to over-torque these screws.
Changing the redrive oil and the spark plug are the (2) most important maintenance items that must be done. Use a Sharpie to write reminders on the top of the redrive (or
other semi-flat area). Any other method will not be as effective. The markings are easily removed with brake cleaner or mineral spirits. This way, you won't forget! You have an
hour meter/tachometer installed right?
A. REDRIVE SERVICING It is very important to change the redrive oil on schedule because it gets quickly contaminated with clutch material. If your clutch oil appears really black when you change it, increase the change frequency. Note that the redrive will use oil because of slight leaks out of the relief valve.
B. Below are service items that are particular for the Polini. Pilots would do well to carefully study the servicing intervals for the Top 80 which I have developed to ensure long engine life for any 2 stroke aviation engine. The carburetor and fuel system are the most common items that must have regular service. Failure to regularly service the carburetor can result in permanent engine damage. It is advisable to measure the engine compression when it is new and use this value as a reference point.
C. The Polini Thor Flash starter is a disaster. See the Flash starter page for more information and (2) good, permanent fixes – and one of the fixes costs just $16.
First 10 hours
- Change redrive oil The exhaust assembly should be removed to get access to the drain plug. Use a cord to remove the exhaust springs. Remove the two buttonhead screws that hold the exhaust assembly to the frame.
- Starter – Replace the entire starter with this one. If you don't, you will wish you had. We have spent 100 hours attempting to fix this mess but there is always some new quirk that causes the starter to blow -- at the most inconvenient times.
Every year (minimum)
- Rebuild the carburetor, including replacing the pop-off spring. The fuel pump will not work properly unless unless the carburetor is rebuilt often!
- Replace the inline fuel filter.
- Change the oil in the redrive.
- Replace the spark plug.
- Check the ignition if there is any question about engine power
- Replace fuel system tubing if ethanol gasoline is used and they are stiff. Hardened tubing puts a great stress on connected parts.
- Check the torque of the cylinder head nuts, especially if you run your engine at or near sea level.
- Closely examine the ignition wiring and connectors and make sure there are no broken or loose wires.
- Replace spark plug DO NOT FORGET TO USE RED THREADLOCK ON THE TOP TERMINAL! It WILL loosen.
- Change redrive oil (change every year, at a minimum). Note: The drain plug can only be removed if the muffler assembly is removed. Remove the springs and the two button-head screws which attach the system to the engine. Tighten the oil fill plug on top of the redrive just snug. If you over-tighten the plug, the gasket will be ruined and it will constantly leak oil. When the gasket fails, an 11mm ID "O" ring will work even better. Be sure to use blue threadlock on the button-head screws when re-installing them.
- Replace muffler springs, as needed. They must be examined carefully for wear or damage.
- Clean air filter (if you fly at the beach or in a dusty environment, you may have to clean this filter more often)
- Flash starter – be sure it is not about to self-destruct! You will have to take it off and carefully inspect it. Don't say, "Had did not warn me!" when the starter blows up and destroys other engine parts e.g. the fan, the shroud, the pulleys, the propeller, and your nerves. See the Flash starter page.
- Starter pulleys – these pulleys are poor quality and will self-destruct if not regularly lubricated with spray white lithium grease or light oil.
- Check/Replace rubber mounts on engine and exhaust system, as needed. Cracks in the rubber mounts may be difficult to see.
100 hours – this is an important and extensive service of the engine. Everything may be fine for 150 hours but then maybe not....
- Replace air filter, as needed. If the filter is in good condition, clean it with soap and water. Never wring these filters to dry them!
- Replace starter rope if there is any signs of wear.
- Replace reed valve petals if they are leaking (a very rare event).
- Polini recommends that pilots replace the connecting rod bearing, the circlips, and the wrist pin. Here is some how-to about this service. In order to do this, you must purchase the entire piston assembly ($142). You cannot buy the wrist pin separately, only the bearing and (10) circlips! If the wrist pin has zero wear (as measured with a micrometer or digital caliper), just replace the bearing ($11) and the circlips. DO NOT REUSE CIRCLIPS!!! You will have to purchase a gasket set, as well. If you installed the exhaust manifold correctly in the first place, you will not have to remove it from the cylinder. Note that Polini changes part numbers, minimum quantity, and whether the part must come in a set e.g. the widget is $1 but you have to buy 5 other items you do not need for $50, much like what American vehicle manufacturers do. It is very irritating....
- Remove carbon and/or lead deposits from the top of piston and cylinder head. Use a razor blade and a Dremel wire brush. Failure to routinely remove deposits will increase compression, combustion temperatures, and will shorten engine life.
- Clean out the decompression port with a 2.6mm (#38) drill bit in the Thor 130, 190, and 200 models. Failure to clean this will result in greatly increased effort needed to start the engine and will cause premature wear of the starter.
- Replace piston and rings if compression is down by over 10% or engine power is significantly different than when the engine was new. If the cylinder hone cross-hatch pattern is no longer present, the cylinder must be re-honed or replaced.
- Replace all bearings and seals, if needed.
- Replace crankshaft if play is excessive in the lower wrist pin bearing. Noisy engines probably need to be overhauled.